The following is a review of the literature and evidence supporting the anti-viral properties of 2-DG, lending further credence to our hypothesis that it can be used as a possible treatment for COVID-19. We are in the process of putting together an international team of experts from the scientific community to accelerate this important work, and have applied to several organizations for grants to fund this research.
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Preliminary results: 1 experiment completed March 20, 2020 at The Pirbright Institute (UK) before lab closed in national lockdown, indicating 2-DG lowers viral load by 1-2 logs in avian coronavirus infected cells in vitro at 3 and 10 mM.
2-DG spray effective in blocking rhinovirus in vitro and an in vivo animal model. Gualdoni GA, et al, and Stöckl J. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Jul 24;115(30) (2018)
Triggering unfolded protein response by 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits porcine epidemic diarrhea virus propagation. Wang,Y, Li,JR, Sun, MX, Ni, B, Huan, C, Huang, L, Li, C, Fan, HJ, Ren, XF and Mao, X. Antiviral. Res. 2014 Jun 106:33-41, (2014)
Activation of the unfolded protein response by 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma- associated herpes virus replication and gene expression. Leung HJ, Duran EM, Kurtoglu M, Andreansky S, Lampidis TJ, Mesri EA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 56(11):5794-803, (2012)
2-DG safe and well-tolerated in cancer patients treated with oral bolus once per day, for periods up to a year. Raez LE, et al, Lampidis TJ. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 71(2):523-30. (2013) Currently being used by > 20 stage 4 cancer patients delivered metronomically 1 gm/24-48 hr slow infusion (2x per week for 18 mths in 1 pt) with no serious side effects reported at this dose
Report that Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus induces increased glucose metabolism in host infected cell, similar to what is known in tumor cells. This provides strong support for the selectivity of 2-DG to preferentially accumulate in viral-infected cells. Delgado, T., Carroll, P. A., Punjabi, A. S., Margineantu, D., et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 10696– 10701. (2010)
Under normoxia, 2-DG elicits cell death in select tumor types by interfering with N-linked glycosylation. Kurtoglu,M et al. Lampidis TJ. Mol Cancer Ther. 6(11):3049-58, (2007)
Anti-viral action of 2-DG in herpes simplex virus by altering glycoproteins required for penetration and infectivity. Spivak, JG, Prusof, WH, Tritton, TR Virology, 123 (1) 123-138, (1982)
2-DG blocks infectious Rous Sarcoma virus replication by 100 fold but total replication only 3 fold. Unglycosylated envelope protein accounts for non-infectious virion. Stohrer, R and Hunter, E J Virol. 1979 32(2): 412–419, (1979)
2-DG incorporates fraudulently into oligosaccharide chain mannose disrupting influenza viral glycoprotein capsid formation. Datema, R and Schwarz, R. T. Eur J Biochem 184,113-123 (1979)
2‐DG blocks infectious Semliki Forest virus production in chick embryo cells ivia interference with glycosylation of virus‐specific glycoproteins. Schmidt, M. F. G., Schwarz, R. T. & Scholtissek, C. Eur Biochem 49: 237, (1974)
PLEASE NOTE: As with any new treatment, safety is the first consideration and that’s exactly why FDA approved clinical trials start with a Phase I trial – to ensure safety in humans and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). So before we have people going out and using 2-DG as a possible treatment for COVID-19, we need to make sure it’s safe, using the steps that all drugs take in getting to the general public.